The civil war - Essay Example
Then the South used slave labor as a mode of production. The invention of the cotton gin made cotton farming more profitable, making the South more reliant on slave labor and thereby further drawing a wedge between itself and the North. The North on the other hand gradually made a dereliction on agriculture and the countryside because of the Industrial Revolution. Factory work became more popular as New York, New Haven and Boston emerged as industrialized cities and thereby leading to mercantilism in the Northâ€™s economy. This economy was heavily reliant on the shipping industry and was more diverse, ethnically. This spurred technological advancements and emergence of new ideas, onwards. Constitutional convention At the time of the Revolution, two camps had emerged: those in favor of the federal government; and those in favor of the rights of the state. The US government had also been organized under the Articles of Confederation, after the American Revolution. As political and legal problems arose, the weakness of this type of government compelled leaders to assemble at the Constitutional Convention to secretly create the US Constitution. This development produced strong opposition from proponents of state rights like Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson, since they were absent in the meeting. Thomas Jefferson and his group felt that the new constitution undermined the right of the state to act independently, yet states should have the prerogatives of deciding the acceptance of certain federal acts. This development led to nullification, a legal provision whereby states would have to declare federal acts unconstitutional. The federal government denied these states these rights. Other proponents like John Calhoun fought relentlessly for nullification. When the clamor for nullification failed, some states felt that they were disrespected, and moved towards secession. This further created the rift between the North and South (Tindall and Shi, 72). Constitutional compromises Slavery as an institution was entrenched in America and its constitution, thereby bringing about critical problems to the 19th century US. Spates of compromises were made in the US Congress to stave off these problems, to hold the Union together, though every compromise4 brought about different problems. Free labor vs. slave labor While free labor solely depended on the will or consent of the slave to work, slave labor compelled the slave to work. Despite the responsibility that slave owner would take over the slave, there would be no guarantee that the slave would work for him in free labor settlement. For slave labor, there would be no reason for the slave not to work except sickness. Failure to work would readily invite punitive measures such as whipping and even death. The only alternatives for one providing slave labor would be escaping and/ or being set free. The issue of free labor vs. slave labor also threatened to split the South and North in that while the North supported free labor, the South supported slave labor. This disparity led to the emergence of Free and Slave states. 1820 Missouri Compromise The ideological rivalry over slavery between the North and South culminated into attempts at compromises. Particularly, the Missouri Compromise of 1820 became another way the North and Sou
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